Chutney (also transliterated chatney or chatni) is a family of condiments mainly associated with South Asian cuisine that usually contain some mixture of spice(s), vegetable(s), and/or fruit(s). There are many varieties of chutney.
Chutneys may be either wet or dry, and can have a coarse to a fine texture. The Indian word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. Several Indian languages use the word for fresh preparations only. A different wordachār (Hindi: अचार) applies to preserves that often contain oil and are rarely sweet. Vinegar, citrus, tamarind, or lemon juice may be added as natural preservatives, or fermentation in the presence of salt may be used to create acid.
The name "chutney" covers a wide variety of foodstuffs. The common element which makes them all "chutneys" is that they are added to meals to add flavour; the best English "translation" of "chutney" is "relish". As such, they can be, and are, eaten with a wide variety of foods.
Traditionally, chutneys are ground with a mortar and pestle made of stone or an ammikkal (Tamil). Spices are added and ground, usually in a particular order; the wet paste thus made is sautéed in vegetable oil, usually gingelly (sesame) or groundnut (peanut) oil. Electric blenders or food processors can be used as labor-saving alternatives to stone grinding.
Chutneys can be made from almost any combination of vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Chutneys are usually grouped into sweet or hot forms; both forms usually contain spices, including chili, but differ by their main flavours. Chutney types and their preparations vary widely across Pakistan and India.
Types of chutneys:
- Coriander (cilantro) chutney
- capsicum chutney
- Mint chutney (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari chutney, where hari is Hindi for "green")
- Tamarind chutney or Imli chutney (often called meethi chutney, as meethi in Hindi means "sweet")
- Sooth (or saunth) chutney, made with dates and ginger
- Coconut chutney
- Onion chutney
- Prune chutney
- Tomato chutney
- Red chili chutney
- Green chili chutney
- Mango chutney (made from raw, green mango)
- Lime chutney (made from whole, unripe limes)
- Garlic chutney (made from fresh garlic, coconut and groundnut)
- Dahi chutney
- Green tomato chutney (common English recipes use up unripe tomatoes)
- Dhaniya pudina chutney (cilantro and mint leaves chutney)
- Peanut chutney (shengdana chutney in Marathi)
- Ginger chutney (mostly used in Tamil cuisine and Udupi cuisine to be eaten with dosa)
- Yogurt chutney, may be as simple as mixing yogurt, red chili powder, and salt, eaten with a variety of foods
- Tomato onion chutney
- Cilantro mint coconut chutney
- Blatjang, used in South African cuisine, is a sweet chutney usually made with apricots.
- Major Grey's Chutney is a type of sweet and spicy chutney popular in the United Kingdom and the United States. The recipe was reputedly created by a 19th-century British Army officer of the same name (likely apocryphal) who presumably lived in Colonial India. Its characteristic ingredients are mango, raisins, vinegar, lime juice, onion,tamarind extract, sweetening and spices. Several companies produce a Major Grey's Chutney, in the UK, the US, and India.
American and European-style chutneys are usually fruit, vinegar and sugar, cooked down to a reduction, with added flavorings. These may include sugar, salt, garlic, tamarind, onion, or ginger.
Ingredients:Baby Tomato - 1 cup
Coriander leaves - 1 bunch or 1 cup chopped
Green chillies - 1 No
Tamarind Paste -1 tsp
Urad dhal - 1 tsp
Asafotida powder - 1/4 teaspoon
Mustard - 1/2 teaspoon
Oil - 2 teaspoons
Salt - 1 teaspoon or as per taste
Cut tomatoes into big pieces.
In a kadai put one teaspoon oil and fry Urad dhal till it turns slightly red. Add green chillies and fry for a while. Then add cut tomatoes and asafotida powder and fry for two to three minutes on a low flame. before removing add coriander leaves and fry just for a second. Switch off the stove. Allow to cool. Add a teaspoon of salt and tamarind and grind altogether to a paste.
Season it with mustard seeds.(optional)